The surface of soil and ground may be subject to the destructive effects of weather conditions, that is, erosion. These factors are mainly wind and rainwater.
The destructive effect of the wind is blowing out soil or soil that is not very cohesive. Such erosion is easiest for soils and sandy soils in a dry state. This phenomenon is known in the coastal areas, where fly sands are formed. The intensity of sand movement can be very high on steep slopes.
The destructive effect of surface water then occurs, when the amount of rainwater at a given time exceeds the amount of water soaking into the ground. Therefore, the most intense water erosion occurs during violent rainfalls. The erosive action of rainwater is to liquefy the surface of the soil or ground, which on slopes leads to the drift of the finer particles. This creates the typical grooves and gouges. On large surfaces, running off water can create very strong jets and cause deep gouging and damage to the ground surface.
The sloping surfaces of fresh embankments are most easily eroded by water. The rate of leaching of soil or soil depends on the degree of slope, degree of compaction, mechanical composition and cohesiveness of the embankment. Soils with a high content of very fine parts, that is, clay and clay soil, they are destroyed most by water, on the other hand, soils containing a significant amount of finely divided material, that is, skeletal soils, they are least susceptible to this erosion.
Rainwater seeping into the ground causes, change of its physical and mechanical characteristics. Considerable amount of water reduces internal friction and overall consistency,ground, while increasing its-mass. The ground, strongly saturated with water, may slide down on large surfaces on a steep slope. There are known cases of landslides of a layer of fertile soil (especially with low cohesiveness and tasty porosity) spread out before planting plants or setting up a lawn.
Ways to prevent wind and water erosion are very different. They can be tilled by appropriate compaction or soil stabilization, introduction and colonization of various plants, as well as covering the surface with various materials.
The method of preventing wind erosion of soils and sandy lands depends on the intended use and use of the site. Sandy ground used as a surface can be stabilized with various binders (cement, wapnem, bituminous masses) or soil additives of greater cohesiveness. On the other hand, sandy grounds and soils intended for the cultivation of various plants should be stabilized by adding sufficiently cohesive soils in certain amounts. These soils can be mixed with the ground to a suitable depth or spread over its surface with a layer of a certain thickness.
A separate issue in the field of protection against erosion is the biological management of very large sand areas, that is, their reclamation, which - causes considerable technical and economic difficulties.