In the cultivation of plants in frames, foil tunnels, low tents and small greenhouses it is important to make the best use of them, because they are expensive devices. However, they enable the cultivation of tasty ones, and often very delicate vegetables, at any time of the year.
In large horticultural plants, very time-consuming frames are installed less and less frequently, in small gardens they are still used for the production of seedlings and for storing vegetables during the winter. You can also brush chicory roots in the frames in winter, parsley or chives. In early spring, various summer and autumn plants can be grown in the frames and low foil tunnels.
The most functional is an ordinary frame. In place of, where it will be set (should be sunny), the soil should be chosen 50-60 cm deep. The top layer of soil, thickness approx 20 cm, puts aside, because it will be needed later. A layer of dry leaves is put into a box placed in a hollow, and fresh horse manure or hops waste. The manure must be warmed up before being placed in the box. For this purpose, it is placed in a bank 2-3 m wide at the base and approx. 1,5 m in height. The top of the embankment should be sloping. Manure should be placed as loosely as possible. After 2-3 days, the manure heats up and can be put in the box. Then it should not be kneaded, but cover with mats and wait approx 3 days until it warms up again. Then we tread the manure thoroughly, especially at the sides of the crate. The thickness of the prepared base should be 30-40 cm. Then it is covered with soil that was left behind during excavation, and for this it gives a layer of plump compost soil with an admixture of sand and clay. You can also mix in a little peat. Between the surface of the ground in the box and the window there should be a free space of 15- 20 cm, needed for plant growth. After 2-4 days, when the ground heats up from the heating pad, you can start sowing seeds or planting plants in the inspection. It is advisable to check the temperature with an ordinary thermometer. Covering the outside of the box walls with leaves or manure protects against heat loss. At night, the windows are covered with mats, boards or polystyrene boards 3–4 cm thick. After the production is completed in the inspection, the base is an excellent raw material for compost. In the absence of manure, peat mixed with various substances can be used as a heating base. You need one window 0,21 m3 torfu, to which is added 10 kg of organic mixed fertilizer or castor meal, 2 kg kalimagnezji, 1 kg of calcium carbonate i 1,3 kg of sugar to stimulate exothermic processes. First, the peat should be plentifully moistened, so that when you squeeze it in your hand, water runs out between your fingers. Fertilizers and sugar previously dissolved in water are added to the peat, and the whole is mixed thoroughly. After a few days, the primer, heated to a temperature of at least 30 ° C, is applied to the box with a layer of 30-40 cm, similar to the leaf and manure base. Both methods achieve a similar increase in temperature, as well as comparable production results.
The peat bedding can also be used later as a raw material for the production of compost. Poorly decomposed peat can be reused as a base in the spring of the following year. The ground in the inspection can also be heated with hot water pipes or electrically. The second way is more expensive, but much more convenient. Descriptions of installing heating devices in frames can be found in specialized professional literature.
Frame boxes need to be aired and shaded, and the soil in them must be constantly moist. It blows up by lifting windows. The so-called. wooden vents, that is pieces of wood of various shapes, with the appropriate notches. In strong winds, fasten them well, so that they do not fall over, which could damage the windows. Reed mats or plastic nets are used for shading. Higher temperatures are good for the plants, under the condition of increased air and soil humidity, therefore watering is of great importance. In the inspection, it is best to water the plants manually with a watering can.