WAYS OF EXECUTING EARTH WORKS, part 2

The easiest way to transport the decimated soil is a dozer or a scraper, because these machines work in motion. However, the detached soil is transported over various distances. For each one it is necessary to use the most economical means of transport. For example. moving the ground with a bulldozer is justified to 60 m, scraper 60-100 m, dump trucks are usually used to transport land over a distance 500-1000 m.

Proper organization ensuring the continuity of their work is very important when using excavators and tipper trucks. The number and carrying capacity of the dumpers should correspond to the capacity of the working excavator. Transport routes must not collide with the workplace of other machines. When choosing the means of transport, remember, that the movement of heavy vehicles can cause an excessive compaction of the ground in many places.

The embankment can be made in various ways. Layered embankment is most often used for slight height differences.

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The layers applied successively by a dozer or a scraper have a low thickness and are simultaneously compacted by these machines. Layer forming of the embankment allows the use of -other machines in order to obtain a high degree of compaction. Additional compaction is necessary there, where long-term subsidence of the ground is inadvisable or unacceptable.
Much less often (especially in the field of shaping green areas) the method of side embankment formation is used. It consists in dumping the delivered soil on the slope of the existing terrain. The dumping ground follows its natural slope angle and is usually largely loosened over a long period of time. Soil compaction on such slopes is difficult, but feasible.
Various undesirable movements of the earth masses may occur during the formation of the embankments by the side method. If the surface to be coated has a significant slope, it is very common for the entire mass of the embankment to slide down the surface.

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This can be prevented by the staggered shape of the backfilled surface, reduction of the thickness of the embankment, reducing the slope of the newly formed surface, compaction, etc..

If the discharged soil has low cohesion, under the weight of the embankment, it may shear and slide down along with the mass of the embankment.

tmp23ae-2Cutting off and removal of the less cohesive base together with the mass of the embankment.

Shearing then takes place in a concave plane. Such landslides may be favored by stopping rainwater flowing on the surface above the slope from the edge of the slope. Water soaking into the ground reduces its cohesion and internal friction, which leads to a landslide. It can be prevented similarly to surface landslides and by appropriate intake of waters beyond the scarp, e.g.. ,by means of slope gutters or a filter system.