WAYS OF EXECUTING EARTH WORKS, part 1

Earthworks are made up of many different activities, of which the most important are:
- disconnection,
- loading,
— transport,
- making the embankment,
- compaction,
- modeling and planting.

Breakout can be done in various ways, which adapts to its category and other conditions. Manual breakout with generally known tools is carried out only in small areas or in places with limited accessibility to machines. Due to the high cost of manual labor, almost all earthworks, and so breaking out, is usually carried out by mechanized methods by using appropriate machines. Shallow loosening of the soil surface to remove the fertile layer can (performed with machines used for. soil cultivation, e.g.. cultivator. Before starting work with bulldozers, scrapers, and sometimes even excavators are needed in (under certain conditions, detach the surface layer of the soil. It is most often required by soils of high cohesiveness, in places of their high concentration, e.g.. by vehicles or stored materials. Strengthened surfaces also require detachment. Strippers are often used for this purpose.

Loading of soil is very often performed as a separate activity. Most often, the excavator's work varies simultaneously with loosening the ground. If the shaken soil is to be transported over longer distances, it is loaded onto various vehicles, most often tippers. If, on the other hand, dozers and scrapers are used to move the ground over short distances, loading is reduced to scraping the loosened soil on the ploughshare or to a box placed behind the ploughshare.