Water pipes. Water supply pipes are made of pressure cast iron pipes, galvanized steel or covered with bitumen on both sides, asbestos-cement and plastic dive. The water pipes are constantly running at depth 1,5-2,0 m depending on local soil freezing conditions. Summer water pipes (seasonal) lays down in depth 30-60 cm and must be emptied of water during the winter. The water supply network is usually equipped with gate valves and valves to shut off the flow of water, as well as with hydrants and tap valves., for water intake.
Sewer pipes. There are two types of sewage networks: combined - draining all sewage and rainwater - draining only rainwater. The sewage lines are usually laid below the freezing depth; therefore, on the surface you can only find various elements of sewage network utilities. These include inspection chambers covered with manholes and rain drains (drain grates). The inlet grate prevents larger contaminants from entering the pipes. At the bottom of the gully, there is a sedimentation basin that stops sand flowing off the road surface and pavements. The settling tank should be emptied periodically. The inlets of the combined sewage system are connected to the conduit by means of siphons, which prevent unpleasant odors from escaping to the outside.
Electric cables. The transmission cables of electric lines can be of high and low voltage. Various types of cables with appropriate insulation protecting against damage and energy losses are used as conductors. They are placed at a depth 0,50-1,00 m, depending on voltage. Cables are placed on the sand, after laying, it is covered with sand and covered with bricks or concrete slabs, creating protection against mechanical damage. If the local network is connected to a running high voltage line, then it is necessary to install a transformer station.
The network of area lighting cables is usually run along the garden paths under the lawn surface or under the sidewalk next to the roadway.
Telecommunications cables. Telecommunication cables are arranged in a similar way to electric cables. Cables with a large number of conductors can be run in conduits made of precast concrete elements. In places where the lines branch, special chambers are built, covered with heavy concrete hatches.
Gas pipes. Gas pipes are steel pipes, different diameter, joined by welding. From the outside, they are covered with special bituminous coatings and laid at shallow depths, but not as shallow as 80 cm below the ground. The gas pipes are equipped with valves enabling the shut-off of the pot inflow.
Heat network pipes. These cables are very often led through green areas; they occupy large areas. Heat network conduits are made of steel pipes of large diameters, welded, covered with rather thick heat-insulating layers. Each heat network consists of two pipes, arranged in channels made of prefabricated elements, covered with plates. The width of these channels may be up to 3 m. The layer of earth covering the channel is at least 50 cm. Any elements of network utilities, like valves, are placed in special chambers, on the line every few dozen meters, accessible through hatches outside.
Drainage pipes. Melioration devices consist of various elements, including the lines of drains and the lines of collectors, that introduce water into covered canals or open water courses. Drainage filters are placed at different depths, usually from 40 do 120 cm, in a sand buffer. Line distances may vary from a few to several meters. Collector lines usually have wells to control and regulate the drainage.