The importance of green areas
Green areas are integral elements of modern cities and housing estates. They perform many functions that are directly dependent on plants, widely appreciated and recognized. The most important functions of green areas should be included: sanitary-hygienic and biological, plastic and decorative, didactic, educational and economic.
Sanitary-hygienic and biological functions consist in:
- enriching the air with oxygen and reducing the content of carbon dioxide in it;
- the mitigation of temperature fluctuations;
- shading the ground surface;
- wind force braking, and in the absence of wind, plant clusters, mostly woody, they initiate convective air movements, causing it to be replaced;
- trapping by plants from the air felt amounts of solid pollutants, mainly dust;
- the release by plants of volatile substances that are toxic to bacteria and some insects, called phytoncides, thus having a protective effect on the human body;
- plants significantly alleviate the intensity of sound energy, i.e. noise suppression;
- retaining rainwater, to a greater extent by soils covered with vegetation, a, thus protecting these soils against erosion.
Plastic and decorative functions result from the natural plastic features of plants. They make it possible to obtain aesthetic effects with a beneficial effect on the human psyche.
Please note, that many plants and in certain periods of development or under certain conditions are not decorative, like nip. wilted plants, affected by diseases or drying ones. The occurrence of plants ,in such states, it may limit or prevent the achievement of decorative and aesthetic values.
High woody vegetation, and especially large clusters of it play an important role in the urban composition of cities and housing estates. Vegetation skillfully combined with architectural elements and engineering structures emphasizes their spatial and plastic features. Often, the plastic features of plants are better used against the background or adjacent to the architecture. Vegetation is also very often used to visually cover various unsightly elements within cities and settlements.
Decorative values of plants in garden compositions are enhanced and enhanced by appropriate combinations of such plastic features of plants, how: size, cut, interior and surface structure and color. A very large variety of plastic features of the applied ornamental plants allows obtaining a wide range of effects. Usage (the plastic value of plants is done visually. Therefore, all plant arrangements should follow specific viewing and lighting directions. The greatest effect of plant influence, usually very beneficial, occurs under such conditions, which allow direct contact. Different features of the structure of plants and their organs are then noticeable, like for example. leaf shapes, flower structure, smells, etc..
Plastic phenomena accompanying the world of plants are characterized by great diversity and variability. The external features of each plant change constantly during the growing season. Whole garden layouts change similarly. This dynamic nature of plastic phenomena among plants causes a constant disappearance and the appearance of various effects during the growing season, and thus evoking new sensations.
The didactic and educational functions resulting from contacts with the natural environment are also of great importance, green areas are always a part of it. Direct contact is of great importance, especially children and adolescents with the world of plants and animals. Ma ,it is essential in the understanding of the essence of environmental protection. Kindergarten gardens play this role, initiating at this stage of development the interests of nature in children. Botanical and zoological gardens allow for the extension and deepening of knowledge in this field.
Increasingly important economic importance (these green areas departments, in which various utility values of plants are used. These include allotment gardens and home gardens. The quality and volume of production obtained in these areas is important in meeting the needs of a significant part of society for vegetables, fruits and flowers.