Compaction of shaken soils

Compaction of loosened soils placed in the embankment may take place under the influence of own weight. However, the process is quite slow and runs unevenly throughout the entire mass of the embankment, depending on the thickness of the layers, the type of land being built, the degree of loosening, etc.. Uneven settlement can lead to distortion of the even surface of the embankment, pooling of water, etc.. Natural subsidence is also unacceptable in places where roads are built, pools, various elements of garden architecture, etc.. Subsidence can be dangerous for the various water pipes in it, sewerage etc.. For these reasons, the soil of the embankments should be compacted to the extent that ensures the durability of the surface and the location of all constructed objects. Therefore, compaction is usually performed by artificial means, which can be divided into static and dynamic.

The static methods include kneading with wheels or tracks of vehicles and various types of rollers. Smooth roller compaction is effective only in very thin layers with a thickness not exceeding 25 cm. Much more effective is the compaction with spiked rollers, as the thickness of the compacted layer may be up to 35 cm. Rollers on pneumatics are used quite often, which, like other rollers, can be load regulated. By using such rollers, the degree of compaction can be controlled by reducing or increasing the pressure in the wheels.

Dynamic compaction may consist in performing concentrated impacts, by using e.g.. various mechanical rammers, or on the transmission of high-frequency vibrations to the ground, that is, vibrating. For this purpose, various vibrators driven by internal combustion or electric motors are used. Dynamic compaction is only used on small areas, due to the low efficiency of the equipment used for this purpose.

Dość często stosowanym sposobem zagęszczania grantów jest zalewanie wodą. This is the right way, especially in land intended to be planted with woody plants. Compaction with water is quite slow, however, it results in a high uniformity of compaction, in addition, water prevents over-compaction. It is important because of the good water and air properties of the soil obtained in this way, beneficial to plant roots.